Preamble

Following the advent of the National Socialist regime in the year 1938, more than 2,700 mostly Jewish affiliates of the University of Vienna were dismissed and subsequently driven away and/or murdered - lecturers, students and administration employees. Furthermore, over 200 people were stripped of their academic titles.
In 2008, 70 years after the so-called "Anschluss" [annexation] and the pogroms of what came to be cynically called the "Kristallnacht" [Crystal Night], the University of Vienna commemorates this injustice and  ...

person

Walter Krause

  • Born: 11-15-1910
  • Faculty: Faculty of Medicine
  • Category: expelled teacher

Walter KRAUSE (born on November 15th, 1910 in Vienna as the son of Dr. Karl Krause (died 1934) and his wife Anna, nee Schwager, died on August 16th, 2007, was in 1938 assistant at the Medical School of the University of Vienna.

He was persecuted in times of Nazism because of his political orientation, lost his position and was thrown out of the university on April 22nd, 1938. He returned to the University of Vienna in 1946.

After he had graduated from high school in Moedling in 1928, Krause studied medicine at the University of Vienna (e.g. with Julius Tandler) and obtained his doctoral degree on December 22nd. 1933. During his studies he already worked as a demonstrator at the 1st anatomical chair (Sauser), where he became an assistant in 1934.

In 1938 he was dismissed for political reasons and persecuted because auf his anti-National Socialist orientation – e.g. he had refused to do the Hitler salute ('Hitler-Gruss'), was questioned by Alexander Pichler, leader of the National Socialist 'Dozentenbundfuehrer'. Krause’s contract of employment was not extended in October 1938. He was forced to work as an unpaid physician at the Vienna City hospital in Lainz for half a year, then got a job at the Sanatorium Schulhof. On December 17th, 1940 Walter Krause was sentenced to 18 months of prison and to work in a penal company for “Rassenschande” (“racial defilement”) because auf the "Non-Aryan" descent of his future wife – Dr. med. Rita Smrcka. From 1942 on he served in the German 'Wehrmacht' in North Africa and finally fell into American war captivity in 1943.[1]

Walter Krause resumed his academic career immediately after he had returned from American war captivity and was able to return to the anatomical institute in February 1946. In the post-war period he was involved in the reconstruction of the destroyed institute building and structured teaching. He habilitated in 1949 and temporarily acted as officiating head of the anatomical institute under the direction of Gerhard Wolf-Heidegger, anatomist from Basel/Switzerland. In 1952 he took over the tutoring of first-year students – yearly alternating with Univ.-Doz. Dr. Gisel (1911-2012) – under Prof. Heinrich Hayek.[2] After Hayek’s death Krause again became officiating head and was made associate professor for topographical anatomy in 1971 and full professor in 1974.[3]

In his works, Krause mainly focused on developmental history, teratology and functional anatomy.[4]

Krause received the Decoration of Honor of the Viennese Medical Chamber in Gold in 1995 and the Austrian Decoration for Science and Art First Class in 2005.[5]
His wife Rita Krause died on November 8th, 2004 after 58 years of marriage, he died on August 16th, 2007 at the age of 97 years.

 

Lit.: Dokumentationsarchiv des Österreichischen Widerstandes (DÖW) 20100/6283, 21011/13, 23201; Archive of the University of Vienna/MED Personalakt Walter Krause; Wiener Stadt- und Landesarchiv (WStLA)/Historische Meldeunterlagen, Auskunft vom 26. 3. 2014.Ingrid ARIAS, Entnazifizierung an der Wiener Medizinischen Fakultät: Bruch oder Kontinuität? Das Beispiel des Anatomischen Instituts, in: Österreichische Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Zeitgeschichte, 6, Jg. 31/2004, 339–369, hier 348; Marlene NOWOTNY, "Ich wünsche Ihnen viel Glück im Ausland!", in: science.orf.at, 24.07.2015Wer ist wer 1951;  Johann WILDE/Volkmar ELLMAUTHALER, Univ. Prof. Dr. Walter Krause, 2007 (obituary); KNIEFACZ/POSCH 2016; KNIEFACZ/POSCH 2017c.

 


[1] Ingrid ARIAS, Entnazifizierung an der Wiener Medizinischen Fakultät: Bruch oder Kontinuität? Das Beispiel des Anatomischen Instituts, in: Österreichische Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Zeitgeschichte, 6, Jg. 31/2004, 339–369, hier 348; Johann WILDE/Volkmar ELLMAUTHALER, Univ. Prof. Dr. Walter Krause, 2007 (obituary)http://medpsych.at/Lehrer-Krause.pdf.

[2] ARIAS 2004, 348.

[4] Wer ist wer in Österreich, Wien 1951.

[5] WILDE/ELLMAUTHALER 2007.


Andreas Huber, Katharina Kniefacz and Herbert Posch

 


Dokumente

Prof. Walter Krause (1910-2007, anatomy), with colleagues in the 1960s, (c) Dr. Isabelle Krause, ViennaProf. Walter Krause (1910-2007, ana...
Prof. Walter Krause (1910-2007) in the anatomy lecture hall in the 1960s, (c) Dr. Isabelle Krause, ViennaProf. Walter Krause (1910-2007) in ...



zuletzt aktualisiert am 06.05.2022

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