Preamble

Following the advent of the National Socialist regime in the year 1938, more than 2,700 mostly Jewish affiliates of the University of Vienna were dismissed and subsequently driven away and/or murdered - lecturers, students and administration employees. Furthermore, over 200 people were stripped of their academic titles.
In 2008, 70 years after the so-called "Anschluss" [annexation] and the pogroms of what came to be cynically called the "Kristallnacht" [Crystal Night], the University of Vienna commemorates this injustice and  ...

person

Ludwig (Marcel) Lissauer

  • Born: 07-13-1918
  • Faculty: Faculty of Medicine
  • Category: expelled student

Ludwig (Marcel) LISSAUER, born on July 13th, 1918 in Vienna/Austria (entitled residency ("heimatberechtigt") for Vienna/Austria, Citizenship: Austria), son of Emanuel Kaufmann (merchant, 1865-1921) and Leopoldine, née Wolfinger, remarried Waldhauser (wife of a tobacconist, 1890-?), lived in Vienna's 3rd district, Landstrasser Hauptstrasse 28/13. After he had graduated from high school ("Realgymnasium") in Vienna's 13th district, he began his studies at the Medical School of the University of Vienna in fall term 1936/37.

He was discriminated as a so called "Mischling 1st degree" under National Socialist rule, but was allowed to continue his studies after the “Anschluss” at first - valid until revoked – and was enrolled in spring term 1938 at the Medical School in the 2nd year of his studies and got a Windhag-grant from the province of Lower Austria. His older sister Elisabeth Lissauer, who studied at the Medical School, too, was also expelled from the University of Vienna.

His mother had converted from Roman Catholicism to Judaism when she first married in Budapest in 1916; after his father's death in 1921, his mother converted back to Roman Catholicism in 1926 before her remarriage, and Marcel Lissauer was baptized as Ludwig Lissauer on June 12th, 1928 in Budapest, also in the Roman Catholic rite. He was thus considered and dicriminated as a "Mischling 1st degree" under National Socialism and was only able to continue his studies for the time being even after the Anschluss - with revocation at any time - and was enrolled in the 2nd semester in the spring term of 1938. His older sister Elisabeth Lissauer, who also studied at the Medical School, was subjected to the same discriminatory measures.

When "Mischlinge" had to apply to the Reich Ministry of Education in Berlin for admission to be allowed continuing their studies as of the 1st term 1940, the Lissauer siblings also submitted applications for the continuation of their medical studies in which they presented themselves as largely loyal to the Nazis. In accordance with the regulations, the dean of the responsible medical faculty, Eduard Pernkopf, attached to the application an expert opinion dated April 1940, which

"in particular [had to] deal with the personal impression about the personality and the appearance of the applicant. It is to be mentioned whether and to what extent characteristics of the Jewish race are outwardly recognizable in the applicant." [Decree of the Reich Ministry of Education, January 5th, 1940].

He stated:

"In both siblings the Jewish type comes out somewhat."

The Reich Ministry of Education Berlin, after consultation with the Reich Ministry of the Interior, decided in June 1940 to admit the siblings "by way of exception" to the medical examination according to the old Austrian study regulations, since they had already passed the preliminary examination (1st Rigorosum). However, it was to be expressly pointed out to them that as "Mischlinge 1st degree" they had no chance of obtaining the Bestallung (professional license) as a physician in the German Reich.

After passing the 2nd and 3rd viva voce examinations ("Rigorosen"), Ludwig and Elisabeth Lissauer would have been entitled to a doctorate according to the old study regulations. In June 1941, the University of Vienna forwarded the siblings' applications for admission to the doctorate of complete medicine. At the suggestion of the Dean of the Medical Faculty, the Rector of the University of Vienna decided on June 26th, 1941, to "conditionally" admit the siblings' doctorate. He agreed that

"Ludwig Lissauer and Elisabeth Lissauer be admitted to the doctorate already now, subject to subsequent approval by the Reich Minister of Education. A report on this matter to the Reich Ministry of Education is in preparation. The diplomas of both will be kept in the administration ("Pedellenkanzlei") and will be handed out to the students only after positive completion of my application in the Reich Ministry of Education."

"The present case seems to me all the more worthy of consideration, since the Fuehrer has made a decision of clemency to the effect that the mother of the above-mentioned candidates, Leopoldine Waldhauser, may continue to belong to the NSDAP without restriction of membership rights, despite not being of pure Aryan descent."

The Reich Ministry of Education Berlin did not make a fundamental decision until September 19th, 1942: without proof of certification as a physician (which was generally not granted to "Mischlinge 1st degree"), the doctoral diploma could not be handed out.

"However, in order to make it easier for the aforementioned to obtain suitable employment in industry, I authorize the faculty to issue a certificate to the effect that, apart from proof of German-blooded ancestry, they have fulfilled all the requirements for the award of the doctoral degree. It shall be expressly noted on the certificate that it is NOT valid as a doctoral diploma."

It was not until after the end of National Socialism that the doctoral diploma, which he would have had already formally obtained on July 5th, 1941, was issued to him in June 1945 and retroactively made valid.

Whether he became a doctor and where he lived is still unclear.

Dr. Marcel (Ludwig) Lissauer deceased at the age of 76 in December 1994 and was buried at the Vienna Central Cemetery.


Lit.: Archive of the University of Vienna (UA) / enrollment forms ("Nationale") MED 1936-1941, graduation registry ("Promotionsprotokoll") MED M 33.13, 5638; Senate MED S 51/2; POSCH/INGRISCH/DRESSEL 2008, 431; REITER-ZATLOUKAL/SAUER 2021; find a grave in Vienna; www.genteam.at.


Katharina Kniefacz and Herbert Posch


Dokumente

Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall term 1936/37 (front), Photo: Katharina Kniefacz (c) Vienna University ArchiveNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall ...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall term 1936/37 (back), Photo: Katharina Kniefacz (c) Vienna University ArchiveNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall ...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall term 1937/38 (1st form front), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall ...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall term 1937/38 (1st form back), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall ...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, spring termn 1938 (1st form front), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, sprin...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, spring termn 1938 (1st form back), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, sprin...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, spring termn 1938 (2nd form front), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, sprin...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, spring termn 1938 (2nd form back), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, sprin...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall term 1938/39 (1st form front), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall ...
Nationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall term 1938/39 (1st form back), Photo: H. Posch (c) Universitätsarchiv WienNationale of Ludwig Lissauer, fall ...
racial expertise from dean Pernkopf about Ludwig LISSAUER, 1940, © Archive of the University of Viennaracial expertise from dean Pernkopf...
graduation registry (Promotionsprotokoll") MED Elisabeth LISSAUER, 1940, © Archive of the University of Viennagraduation registry (Promotionsprot...
Denial of medcial doctoral diploma 1942, Ludwig LISSAUER © Archive of the University of ViennaDenial of medcial doctoral diploma ...
Ludwig Marcel LISSAUER, 1940, © Archive of the University of ViennaLudwig Marcel LISSAUER, 1940, © Ar...



zuletzt aktualisiert am 04.05.2021

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